Valyrian Language Dictionary

A

ābra [‘aːbra]

n. 1lun. woman; coll. ābrar womankind, all women; humanity, all people;[1] life[2] (cf. ābrar)

ābrar [‘aːbrar]

n. 6col.1lun. life.[2] (Relexicalized collective from ābra)

ābrazȳrys [aːbra’zyːɾys]

n. 2sol. wife ( < ābra + -zȳrys.)

adere [a’deɾe]

adj. II slippery; sleek, smooth; fast, quick

aderī [a’deɾiː]adv. soon (adere + -ī.)

Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.

aderves [a’derves]

n. 4sol. quickness, sleekness, smoothness [3]

addemmagon [ad’demmagon]v. C-fin. to pay, to satisfy, to make good, object is usually inanimate[4]

Lannister va moriot zyha gēlȳnī addemmis. A Lannister always pays his debts.

āegenka [aːɛ̯’geŋka]adj. I iron ( < āegion iron + -enka)

Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]

āegion [‘aːɛ̯gi͡on]

n. 3ter. iron [6]

Aeliks [‘aɛ̯liks]

prop. n. 3sol. Aelix

āeksio [‘aːɛ̯ksi͡o]n. 3lun. master, lord. (cf. āeksion).

Āeksio yne ilīritas. The Lord has smiled upon me.

āeksion [‘aːɛ̯ksi͡on]n. 3ter. gold (cf. āeksio).

Āeksio ondos Hand of gold[7]

Aerys [‘aɛ̯ɾys]prop. n. 2sol. Aerys.ajomemēbagon [ajome’meːbagon]v. Insv. C-fin. to rage on

Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, The war rages on

amāzinon [a’maːzinon]n. 3ter return (prob. < a- + māzigon + -non)

Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muo amāzinon jumbari? Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[8]

ampa [‘ampa] indec.

num. ten.

amplie [‘ampli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III tenth.

angogon[9] [‘aŋgogon]perfect: angotanv. V-fin. to bite.

Sparos rōbir angotas? Who bit the fig?

anne [‘anne]

n. 4lun horse[10]

ānogar [‘aːnogar]n. 1aq. blood.Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.

zaldrīzo ānogar Blood of the dragon[11]

ao [‘aɔ̯]

pers.pron. you (sing.).

aōha [a’ɔːha] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I your (sg.)

aōhon [a’ɔːhon]poss.pron. 3ter. yours (sg.)

Aōhon iksan se uhon iksā I am yours and you are mine[12]

aōhoso [a’ɔːhoso]adv. in your way, as you wish (ins. of aōha.)

Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se uhoso ziry rijībin. You worship Him your way, and I’ll worship Him mine.

aōla [a’ɔːla]

refl. 1lun. yourself

arakhi [a’ɾaxi], arakh [a’ɾax]n. 6for. arakh, a curved sword used by the Dothraki. ( < Doth. arakh.)arghugon [‘aɾɣugon]

v. V-fin. to hunt

arghurys [‘aɾɣuɾys]

n. 2sol. hunter ( < arghugon + -tys with rhotacism of the t)[13]

arlie [‘aɾli͡e]adj. III new

Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. By the Old Gods and the New.

arlī [‘aɾliː]adv. back, again(?) (lit. anew, < arlie + -ī.)

Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.

arliagon [aɾli’ɲagon]

v. C-fin. to change intrans.[14] ( < arlie + -agon.)

arlinio [‘aɾlini͡o]

n. 3lun. one who changes, becomes different[14] ( < arliagon + -io.)

arlinnon [aɾ’linnon]

n. 3ter. change[14] ( < arliagon + -non.)

Astapor [‘astapor]

n. 3aq. Astapor.

atroksia [a’troksi͡a]

n. 1lun. owl[15]

ātsio [‘aːtsi͡o]

n. 3lun tooth

averilla [ave’ɾilla]

n. 1aq.[16] wine[17] ( < avero grape + -illa.)[18]

avero [a’veɾo]

n. 3lun. grape[19]

azandy [a’zandy]

n. 2lun. short sword

azantyr [a’zantyr]

n. 6col.2sol. army. (Relexicalized collective from azantys)

azantys [a’zantys]n. 2sol. soldier, knight, warrior. (lit. swordsman, < azandy + -tys)

Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

B

baes [baɛ̯s]

n. 3sol summit.

bāne [‘baːne] -ior

adj. II warm

bantāzma [ban’taːzma]n. 1lun. long night ( < bantis + -āzma)

Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[8]

bantis [‘bantis]n. 5sol. night

Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. For the night is dark and full of terrors[20]

bardugon [‘baɾdugon]v. V-fin. to write.

perfect: bardutan

bartos [‘baɾtos]

n. 3sol. head

bē [beː]

postp.→gen. on, on top of, upon; on (the subject of), about

belmon [‘belmon]n. 3ter. chain.Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! Strike the chains off every slave you see!coll. belmor bondage

Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[8]

belmurtys [bel’muɾtys]n. 2sol.[16] slave master, slaver (prob. belmon + -uragon + -tys.)[21]

Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna Tell the slavers I will receive them here

beqes [‘beqes]

n. 4sol. sow, female pig

bēuvāedagon [beːu’vaːɛ̯dagon]

v. Loc. appl. to sing about (or upon) [22] ( < bē- + u- + vāedagon )

bēvilagon [beːviˈlagon]v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be necessary; bēvilza it is necessary +gen for… +inf. to… ( literally to lie upon, < bē- + u- + ilagon.)

Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.

bianor [ˈbi͡anor] biādr-

n. 3aq. ewe, female sheep[23]

biare [ˈbi͡aɾe]adj. II happy

Biarior Arlior Jēdari! Happy New Year!

biarves [ˈbi͡aɾves]n. 4sol. happiness, jubilation, luck, fortune[24] biarvī manaeragon to celebrate.

Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.

bībagon [ˈbiːbagon]

v. C-fin. to suck

bēvumbagon [beːˈvumbagon]

v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to float (lit. to remain above, < bē- + u- + umbagon.)

bisa [‘bisa] -ys, -on, -ordem.pron. adj. I this proximal, animate

Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. These men are our guests.

bisir [‘bisir]

dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entitites

bisy [‘bisy]

dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, animate, for concrete, countable entities

blēnon [‘bleːnon]

n. 3ter. mountain

bode [‘bode]

n. 5lun. tail

bona [‘bona] -ys, -on, -or

dem.pron. adj. I that distal, animate

bonir [‘bonir]

dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entities

bony [‘bony]

dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, animate, for concrete, countable entities

bōsa [‘boːsa] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I long either temporally or spatially, tall

botagon [bo’tagon]v. C-fin. to suffer →inst., the thing sufferedLodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.to endureValar botis All men must endure[25]to permit

Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[8]

brāedāzma [braːɛ̯ˈdaːzma]

n. 1lun. bronze ( < brāedion + -āzma.)

brāedion [ˈbraːɛ̯di͡on]

n. 3ter. copper

brōzagon [ˈbroːzagon]perfect: brōstanv. C-fin. to name ( < brōzi.)In the reflexive to call oneself, to be named

Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? What are your names?

brōzi [ˈbroːzi]

n. 5lun. name ( < brōzi.)

bughegon [buˈɣegon]

v. V-fin. to swim

buzdari [buz’daɾi], buzdar [buz’dar]n. 6for. slave ( < AV buzdar < Ghiscari.)

Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. A dragon is not a slave.

byka [‘byka] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I small

byllie [‘bylli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III sixth

bȳre [‘byːɾe] -ior

num. adj. II six.

bȳrēpsa [byː’ɾeːpsa] indec.

num. sixty.

bȳrīblie [byː’ɾiːbli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III sixtieth

D

dāeremagon [daːɛ̯ɾe’magon]v. C-fin. (irreg.) to free ( < dāez + -emagon.)

Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.

dāerves [‘daːɛ̯ɾves]n. 4sol. freedom. ( < dāez + -ves.)

Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. Your freedom is not mine to give.

dāez [daːɛ̯z] dāerioradj. II free.

Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? Will you fight for me? As free men?

dakogon [da’kogon]

v. V-fin. to run[26]

daomio [‘daɔ̯mi͡o]n 3lun. rain. coll. daomior.

Kastāmiro Damior The Rains of Castamere

daor [daɔ̯r], [da’or]

adv. not, intj. no.

daoriot [‘daɔ̯ɾi͡ot]

indef.pron. adv. nowhere; daoriot jemas it doesn’t matter, lit. it leads nowhere.

daorun [‘daɔ̯ɾun]indef.pron. 6pauc.3ter nothing

Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis, iā daoruni jemot vestretis. Your masters may have told you lies about me, or they may have told you nothing.

daorys [‘daɔ̯ɾys]indef.pron. 2sol. no one

daorys ziry ōdrikilza. no one will harm him.

dāria [‘daːɾi͡a]n. 1lun. queen.[27]

Mīrīno Dāria Queen of Meereen [28]

dārilaros [daːɾi’laɾos]n. 3sol. heir to the throne, crown prince, crown princess ( < the dār- root seen in the dārys family of words, plus the substantivized future participle ending -ilaros, as if from a verb *dāragon. However, no such verb exists in the classical language, and it is uncertain if there ever was one.)

Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.

dārion [‘daːɾi͡on]n. 3ter. kingdom.

Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero. the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros.

dārōe [daː’ɾoːɲe]

adj. II royal[29] ( < dārys + -ōe.)

dārys [‘daːɾys]n. 2sol. king.

Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōo jemagon. Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light

davābagon [da’vaːbagon]

v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to rain. [30] (an -ābagon formation off a root *dav-, perh. primordially related to daomio, rain.)

dēmagon [‘deːmagon]v. V-fin. to sit

Kēli Davidȳ dēmas. The cat sits on David.[31]

dēmalion [‘deːmali͡on]n. 3ter. throne ( < dēma- + -lion.)

Tymptir Dēmalȳti A Game of Thrones[32]

deks [deks]

n. 3sol. foot

dekuragon [deku’ɾagon]

v. C-fin. to step.[33] ( < deks + -uragon.)

dekurūbagon [deku’ɾuːbagon]

v. C-fin. to walk. ( < dekur- + -ēbagon.)

derēbagon [de’ɾeːbagon]perfect: derēptanv. C-fin. to gather. ( < *der- + -ēbagon. There is probably a verb *deragon which means something like to take. Cf. AV mazedhas derari he was taken.)

Vala Aero syt rōbra derēbza. The man collects figs for Aerys.

dobotēdāves [doboteː’daːves]n. 4sol. ignorance[34] (speculatively from < do- + botagon + -ēda + -ves lit. the quality of not having been made to endure or suffer something.)

Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism[35]

dohaeragon [do’haɛ̯ɾagon]perfect: dohaertanv. C-fin. to serve. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlisSȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. May it serve you well.[36]

Dohaeriakson raqan. I like to be served.[37]

dohaeriros [do’haɛ̯ɾiɾos]n. 3sol. slave (substantivized aorist participle of dohaeragon.)

Dārys rybis sepār dohaeriros rybis He hears the king as he hears the slave

dohaertros [do’haɛ̯ɾtros]n. 3sol. one who was previously a slave (Past habitual active participle of dohaeragon.)

Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri. Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.

dīnagon [‘diːnagon]perfect: dīntanv. to put something that naturally goes on, about or in something else in that thing e.g. a cap on a bottle, a sword in a scabbard, a helmet on a head, but not a sword on a table.[38]in pass., →com. to marry[4]Ao ynoma dīnilūks? Will you marry me?ozdakonot dīnagon put to flight, chase away.

Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. Those who love the darkness chased her away.[8]

dōna [‘doːna]

adj. I. sweet[39]

dōre [‘doːɾe] -ioradj. II noDōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. Theres no country without a language.

Yn dōre vala iksan. But I am no man.[40]

dōrī [‘doːɾī]indef.pron. adv. never

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi… Some old wounds never truly heal…

dorolvie [do’ɾolvi͡e] -ior

adj. III not much, few ( < dor- + olvie)

dōrenka [doː’ɾeŋka]

adj. I made of stone ( < dōron + -enka.)

dōrenky [doː’ɾeŋky]adj. I stoney one; Stone Man i.e. a person in the late stages of the Grey Plague. (Subst. of dōrenka.)

He hears the Stone Men in their misery mundari dorenki rybis

dōron [‘doːɾon]

n. 3ter. stone

dōros [‘doːɾos]

n. 3sol. wall ( < dōron.)

dorzalty [doɾ’zalty]n. 2lun. The Unburnt (Substantivized form of *dorzalta unburnt < do- + zalta.)

Daenerys Targarien, Jelmāzmo, Dorzalty, Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero, Mua Zaldrīzoti. Daenerys Targaryen, the Stormborn, the Unburnt, the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, the Mother of Dragons.

dovaogēdy [dovaɔ̯’geːdy]n. 2lun. an Unsullied. Col. Dovaogēdyr the Unsullied as a group. (Substantivized form of *dovaogēda unsullied < do- + vaogēda, perf.part. of vaogemagon.)

Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! Unsullied! Forward march!

drakarys [dra’kaɾys]

n. 2sol. dragon-fire.

drāe [‘draːɲe]

adj. II wide

drōmon [‘droːmon]

n. 3ter. egg

dubys [‘dubys]

n. 2sol. sibling

drēje [‘dreːje]adj. II true, correct.

Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio uho konir drējior issa. They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.

drējī [‘dreːjī]adv. truly

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi… Some old wounds never truly heal…

dȳes [‘dyːɲes]4sol. animal

Dȳer raqiror issa. All animals are friends.[41]

E

ēbrion [‘eːbri͡on]

n. 3ter. night sky[29]

ēdrugon [‘eːdrugon]perfect: ēdrutanv. V-fin. “to sleep.” Perf.Pert. ēdruta “having slept.”

Valar Ēdrussis All Men Must Sleep

eglie [‘egli͡e] -ioradj. III high

Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. The High Priest gave you a mission.

egros [‘egros]

n. 3sol. edge; blade; sword (cf. egry.)

egry [‘egry]n. 2lun. knife (cf. egros.)

Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. The man splits the fig with a knife.

eleks [‘eleks]

n. 3sol. ear

elēnar [e’leːnar]

n. 1aq? tide[42] (cf. elēni perh. the semantic connection is rhythm?)

elēni [e’leːni]n. 5lun. voice;[43] music[44] (cf. elēnar.)

Āeksio Oo elēni jeve rybis. The Lord of Light hears your voice.

ēlie [‘eːli͡e] -ior

adj. III first; primary

ēlī [‘eːliː]adv. first

Sparos ēlī morghūlilza? Who will die first?[45]

emagon [e’magon]perfect: ēdan

v. C-fin. (irreg.) to have. 3s. pres. act. ind. ēza, 3pl. ēzi, imperfect emilen, emiles, etc.)

embar [’embar]n. 1aq. sea. Col. embrar “the sea(s)”, in a more figurative sense[46]

Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. So much news I have to give you from over the seas.

embāzma [em’baːzma]n. 1lun. great sea perh. in some sort of metaphorical sense? Parmenko Embāzmā The Great Grass Sea of the Dothraki ( < embar + -āzma.)

Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea

embōe [em’boːƞe] -or

adj. II aquatic ( < embar + -ōe.); embōe kēli sea otter.[47]

Embraro[em’braːro]

n.1aq. Seaworth[48] a family name (< embar + gen. sing.)

endia [‘endi͡a]n. 1lun. west (cf. endie, western)[49]

Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se āqot mazilībus. When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[50]

endie [‘endi͡e] -ior

adj. III western (adj. formation off of endia.)

ēngītsos [‘eːŋgiːtsos]

n. 3sol. little tongue[51] ( < ēngos + -ītsos.)

ēngos [‘eːŋgos]n. 3sol. tongue; language. Muo ēngos “mother tongue.” Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue.Valyrio muo ēngos uhys issa. Valyrian is my mother tongue.

Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? Do you speak the Common tongue?

enkagon [‘eŋkagon]v. C-fin. to owe +inst: the thing owed; +acc: the person to whom it is owed.

Dāervose jevosy yne enkot daor. You do not owe me your freedom.

epagon [e’pagon]perfect: eptanv. C-fin. to ask somebody→dat. a question→acc.Ynot mirros epās! Ask me something![52]of somebody→dat. a favor→acc.Skoros ynot epilū? What would you ask of me?Obl. appl. iepagon (less correctly jepagon) “to ask for” something→acc., of someone→dat.

Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.

epses [‘epses]

4sol. female goat, nanny goat

ērinagon [eːri’nagon]v. C-fin. to win[4]

Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.

ērinnon [‘eːrinnon]

n. 3ter. victory[53] ( < ērinagon + -non.)

ezīmagon [e’ziːmagon]v. C-fin. to split. with va +dat into…Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. The man splits the fig with a knife.

Insv. hezīmagon.

G

gadbagi [‘gadbagi], gadbag [‘gadbag]n. 6for.lun. slave name ( < AV gadbag < Ghiscari.)

Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās. Throw away your slave name.

gallie [‘galli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III hundredth.

gaomagon [‘gaɔ̯magon]perfect: gōntanv. C-fin. to do; →dat. & inf. allow.

Mentyri idae jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.

gaomilaksir [gaɔ̯mi’laksir]n. 5aq mission (substantivized fut.pass.part. of gaomagon, lit. that which is to be done.)

Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. The High Priest gave you a mission.

gaomon [‘gaɔ̯mon]n. 3ter deed

Se dāeri vali pōntalo syt gaomoti iderēbzi. And free men make their own choices.

gār [gaːr] indec.

num. hundred.

gēlenka [geː’leŋko] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I silver-colored; silver-like,[54] ( < gēlion + -enka.)

gēlion [‘geːli͡on]

n. 3ter. silver.

gēlior [‘geːli͡or]n. 6col.3ter. money (relex. col. of gēlion silver.)

Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas. He wants to give you money.[8]

gelte [‘gelte]n. 4lun[16] helmet.

Geltī aōhe nādīnās. Remove your helmet.

gēlȳn [‘geːlyːn]n. 6pauc.3ter. debt[4] (relex. pauc. of gēlion silver.)

Lannister va moriot zyha gēlȳnī addemmis. A Lannister always pays his debts.

genes [‘genes]

n. 4sol. mouse, rat

geptot [‘geptot]

adv. left

geralbar [ge’ɾalbar]

n. 1aq road ( < geron (etc.) + -albar.)

geron [‘geɾon]n. 3ter. walk.

Qilōnario Geron. Walk of Punishment.

geros ilas [‘geɾos ‘ilas]

exp. good bye.[55]

gerpa [‘geɾpa]

n. 1lun. fruit; more generally the edible part of a plant.

gevie [‘gevi͡e]

adj. III. beautiful[56]

gevives [ge’vives]

n. 4sol. beauty[57] ( < gevie + -ves.)

gīda [‘giːda]adj. I. equal, even[34]; steady, by extension calm[58].

iēdrosa gīdāpa. calm as still water.

giēagon [‘gi͡eːɲagon]v. C-fin.’ to heal (intransitive), to be healed (perh. giez + -ēagon.)Insv. zgiēagon to heal of wounds etc. as opposed to people.

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi… Some old wounds never truly heal…

giēilaros [gi͡eːɲi’laɾos]

n. 3sol. One Who is Not Yet Healed, a term used in Astapor for Unsullied in training (substantivized future participle of giēagon. AV ginilaro.)

giez [gi͡ez] gier-

adj. II whole

gīmigon [‘giːmigon]v. V-fin. to knowKesir gīmī. You know thisDaoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. You know nothing, Jon Snow.

Gīmissiks. It is known.[59]

gīs [‘giːs] gīh-n. 3sol.[60] soul.

Zȳhys ōoso jehikagon Āeksiot epi, se gīs hen sȳndrorro jemagon. We ask the Lord to shine his light, and lead a soul out of darkness.

glaesagon [‘glaɛ̯sagon]

v. C-fin. to live; used with adv. to describe state of well-being: Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?, Syrī glaesan I’m good.[59]:

glaeson [‘glaɛ̯son]n. 3ter. life. Col. glaesor life (slightly more abstract)[2]

Keso glaesot iderēptot daor. You did not choose this life.

gō [goː]postp.→gen. under, beneath, below; beforeadv. under, beneath, below; before

Skoriot daorys gō istas nēdenkirī jagon. To boldly go where no one has gone before.[61]

gōvilagon [goːvi’lagon]v to lie below →acc. ( < gō- + u- + ilagon.)

…rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. … with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.

grēges [‘greːges]

n. 4sol. louse.

grevenka [greˈveŋka] -ys -on -or

adj. I round ( < grevy + -enka.)

grevy [ˈgrevy]

n. 2lun. wheel[62]

gryves [‘gryves]n. 4sol. bear.

Gryves se Ria Litse. The Bear and the Maiden Fair.

guēse [‘gu͡eːse]

n. 4lun. tree

guēsin [‘gu͡eːsin]

n. 6pauc.4lun. forest (pauc. of guēse.)

gūrēagon [guː’ɾeːɲagon]perfect: gūrēntanv. C-fin. to learn (perh.gūrogon + -ēagon.)

Valar gūrēis All men must learn[63]

gūrogon [‘guːɾogon]perfect: gūrotanv. V-fin. to take[4]; in the reflexive to earn, merit, deserve

uhor līr gūrēnna. I will take what is mine.[4]

gūrotrir [‘guːɾotrir]n. 6col.5aq. that which one has earned, that which one deserves, one’s due, just deserts (col. subst. perf. part. of gūrogon.)Se jevo qrinuntoti pōjor gūrotriri maghan. And I bring your enemies what they deserve.

Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]

H

hae [haɛ̯]prep.→loc. as, like.

Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? Will you fight for me? As free men?

hāedar [‘haːɛ̯dar]n. 1aq. younger sister.

Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.

hakogon [‘hakogon]

v. V-fin. to pull

hāre [‘haːɾe] -ior

num. adj. II three

hārēpsa [‘haːɾeːpsa] indec.

num. thirty

hārīblie [haː’ɾiːbli͡e]

num. adj. III thirtieth

havon [‘havon]n. 3ter bread.[64]

Havon sīr ipradakson kostas. The bread can now be eaten.[37]

havor [ˈhavoɾ]

n. 6col.3ter. food (relex. col. of havon bread.)

hēdrȳ [‘heːdryː]postp.→gen. from amongst (prob. hen + rȳ, with nasal deletion.)

Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ. You will select a leader, from amongst your own ranks.

hegagon [he’gagon]

v. C-fin. to slaughter.

hegnīr [‘hegniːr]adv. like that, in that way; conj. →subj. so that

Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas, hegnīr aōhys rūs ipradagon kostos. He only wants to give you money, so your baby can eat.[8]

hembar [‘hembar]adv. next ( < pār, presumably with hen).

Hembar Yunkaihot istan. Next I went to Yunkai.

hen [hen]prep.→loc. from, of; →dat. out of.

Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.

hēnka [‘heːŋka]adj. I same

Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.

hēnkirī [‘heːŋkiɾiː]adv. together ( < hēnka + -ī.)Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.’adv. in kind

Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.

henujagon [henu’jagon]perfect: hembistanv. Loc. appl. irreg. to exit, to leave. ( < hen- + u- + jagon.)

Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. Any man who wishes to leave may leave.

hepnon [‘hepnon]n. 3ter. climb. (< unattested *hep- to climb + -non.)

Hepnon. The Climb.

hepvos [‘hepvos]n. 3sol. ladder.[65] (< unattested *hep- to climb + *-vos, presumably some sort of instrument-forming suffix.)

Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. Chaos is a ladder.

hezīmagon [he’ziːmagon]v. Insv. C-fin. to split, used with instrumental subjects ( < a- + ezīmagon.)(Valo ondoso) rōbir egry hezīmza. The knife (of the man) splits the fig.

(Egromy) rōbir hezīmaks. The fig is split (with a knife).

hēzīr [‘heːziːr]adv. henceforth, from now on ( < hen + sīr with nasal deletion.)

Hēzīr, brōza jevi jemēle iderēbilātās. From this day forward, you will choose your own names.

hīghagon [ˈhiːɣagon]v. to scream[66]

… se avy ōdrikosy lī hīghari morghūlilzi. … and those who would harm you will die screaming.

hīlagon [ˈhiːlagon]

v. C-fin. to hit

hontes [‘hontes]

n. 4sol. bird.

hobres [‘hobres]n. 4sol. male goat, billy goat.

kastys hobresse blue goats.

hoskagon [‘hoskagon]v. to make proud (perh. hōzigon + -kagon.)

… iderēbās. Avy hoskas lue brōzi. Choose… A name that gives you pride.

hōzigon [‘hoːzigon]v. V-fin. to swellhubon [‘hubon]

3ter. rope

hunes [‘hunes]

n. 4sol. rabbit

hūra [‘huːɾa]1lun. moon

uho glaeso hūrus. Moon of my life.[59]

hūrenka [huː’ɾeŋka] -ys -on -oradj. I lunar ( < hūra + -enka.)

hūrenkon qogror. solar class.[67]

I

iā [‘i͡aː]

conj. or

iāragon [‘i͡aːɾagon]

v. C-fin. to flow

īby [‘iːby]

2lun. bone

idaa [i’daɲa]

n. 1lun. twin (cf. idae.)

idae [i’daɲe] -oradj. II fellow (cf. idaa.)

Mentyri idae jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.

iderēbagon [ide’ɾeːbagon]perfect: iderēptanv. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose, select. +dat: the thing selected, +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive) ( < i- + derēbagon.)Vala rōbrȳti Aeri iderēbza. The man selects figs for Aerys.Aeri iderēbaks. Aerys is selected for.

Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. Pick a god and pray.[68]

iderennon [ide’ɾennon]n. 3ter choice ( < iderēb- + -non.)Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.*iderenne, -s, -n ?n. 4? trial[4]

Vīlībāzmosa iderennī emilun. I would like a trial by combat.

iēdar [‘i͡eːdar]n. 1aq. watercol. iēdrar

poetic for sea

iemny [‘i͡emny]n. 2lun. stomach

Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. For the night is dark and full of terrors[20]

iemnȳ [‘i͡emnyː]postp.→gen. within more emphatic than using the bare locative. (loc. of iemny stomach.)Jēdar yno toliot. Tegon yno gō. Perzys yno iemnȳ. Sky above me. Earth below me. Fire within

me.[69]

ilagon [i’lagon]v. C-fin. to lie, to be in a certain place. Original meaning to lay straight preserved in expression geros ilas good bye, literally something like may the path lie straight. (cf. ilie straight.)Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[70]

Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[8]

ilie [ˈili͡e]

adj. III straight (cf. ilagon to lie (straight)).

īlinuragon [iːlinu’ɾagon]perfect: īlinurtanv. C-fin.? to crucify (Contains -uragon.)

Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.

ilīrigon [i’liːɾigon]v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to smile upon →acc. ( < *līrigon to smile)perfect: ilīritan

Āeksio yne ilīritas. The Lord has smiled upon me.

īlon [‘iːlon]

pers.pron. we.

īlōnda [iː’loːnda]

refl. 1lun. ourselves

īlva [‘iːlva] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I our

īlvon [‘iːlvon]

poss.pron. 3ter. ours

ilzigon [‘ilzigon]perfect: ilzitan

v. V-fin. to throw

imāzigon [i’maːzigon]perfect: imāstanv. Obl. appl. V-fin. to attend an event. ( < i- + māzigon lit. to come for.)Valar imāzissis. All men must attend.[71]imorghūljagon [imoɾ’ghuːʎagon]perfect: imorghūltanv. C-fin. to die for ( < i- + morghuljagon.)

Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[72]

indigon [‘indigon]

v. V-fin. to push

inkon [‘iŋkon]

n. 3ter. back

inkot [‘iŋkot] behind (the locative or dative case of inkon.)

Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.

Ionos [‘i͡onos]n. 3sol. Jonos, Jon a common name

Daoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. You know nothing, Jon Snow.

iōragon [‘i͡oːɾagon]v. C-fin. to be standing, to stand.

perfect: iōrtan

iōrves [‘i͡oːɾves]n. 4sol. cold, coldness[73] ( < iosre + -ves.)Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. The cold never bothered me.iosre [‘i͡osre], ioje [‘i͡oje],[74] -ior

adj. II cold

ipradagon [ipra’dagon]perfect: iprattan[75]v. C-fin. to eat (In origin the applicative of *pradagon, a verb of uncertain meaning, but in any case not reated to eating. It supplanted kisagon as the word for to eat. )[76]

Valar Ipradis… Valar Ipradiks All Men Must Eat… All Men Must Be Eaten.[77]

irudy [i’ɾudy]n. 2lun. gift

Va ellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oo irudy. Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.

issaros [‘issaɾos]n. 3sol person (prob. subst. pres.part. of sagon, lit. being.)ivestragon [i’vestragon]perfect: ivestretan

v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to tell, to say to ( < i- + vestragon.)

ivīlībagon [iviː’liːbagon]v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < i- + vīlībagon to fight.)

Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[72]

izula [i’zula] -ys, -on, -on

num. adj. I four

izulēpsa [i’zuleːpsa] indec.

num. forty

izulīblie [izu’liːbi͡e] -ior

num. adj. III fortieth

izunnie [i’zunni͡e] -ior

num. adj. III fourth

J

jaedos [‘jaɛ̯dos]

n. 3sol. summer[78]

jaelagon [‘jaɛ̯lagon]v. C-fin. to want, to wishperfect: jeldan

Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. Any man who wishes to leave may leave.

jaes [jaɛ̯s] jaeh-n. 3sol god, goddess[79]Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. By the Old Gods and the New.

Jaehossas sȳris sātās Gods be good![71]

jagon [‘jagon]perfect: istanv. irreg. to go.

Sesīr īlot jagon! Now let us go![80]

jāha [‘jaːha] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I its, his, her

jāhon [‘jaːhon]

poss.pron. 3ter. its, his, hers

jāla [‘jaːla]

refl. 1lun. itself, himself, herself

jaos [jaɔ̯s] jaoh-n. 3sol. dog

Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[59]

jaqiarza [ja’qi͡aɾza]adj. I glorious (Aorist passive participle of unknown verb *jaqagon, perhaps from z- + raqagon.)Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. I fight and die for your glory, O glorious

Queen.[72]

jaqiarzir [ja’qi͡aɾzir]n. 5aq. glory (Type 2 substantive of jaqiarza.)Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. I fight and die for your glory, O glorious

Queen.[72]

jazdan [jazdan]

n. 6for. harpy ( < AV jazdan < Ghiscari )[81]

jēda [‘jeːdar]

n. 1lun. season, time.

jēdar [‘jeːdar]n. 1aq. sky (cf. jēda time and jēdar year. Possibly originally a collective, like lentor.)

col. jēdrar sky

jēdar [‘jeːdar]n. 6col.1aq. year (col. of jēda time.)

Biarior Arlior Jēdari! Happy New Year!

jehikagon [jehiˈkagon]perfect: jehittanv. C-fin. to shine. With acc. to shine on, illuminate.

Āeksios, aōhos ōoso īlōn jehikās. Lord, cast your light upon us[20]

jēlēbagon [jeːˈleːbagon]

v. C-fin. to blow (from a root *jēl-, seen in jelmion etc., + -ēbagon.)

jelmāzma [jelˈmaːzma]n. 1lun. storm. Gen. Jelmāzmo Stormborn. ( < jelmio + -āzma.)

Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.

jelmio [‘jelmi͡o]n. 3lun. wind. Coll. jelmior [‘jelmi͡or] wind collectively,[82] weather.[78] (cf. jēlēbagon)

Udra jelmior issi. Words are wind.

jelmōe [jel’moːɳe] -or

adj. III. northern ( < jelmor + -ōe.)[83]

jelmor [‘jelmor]

n. 3aq. north (related to jelmio.)[83]

jemagon [jeˈmagon]perfect: jentanv. to lead someone →acc., from something →acc(?), to something →dat?loc?; daoriot jemas it doesn’t matter, lit. it leads nowhere. (possibly in origin i- + emagon, but this is uncertain, and in any case the verb conjugates regularly)

Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōo jemagon. Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.

jemēla [je’meːla]

refl. 1lun. ourselves

jeme [‘jeme]pers.pron. you (plur.).

jepagon see epagon.

jenigon [je’nigon]v. V-fin.? to bother[73]

Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. The cold never bothered me.

jention [‘jenti͡on]n. 3ter. leadership. ( < jemagon.)

Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.

jentys [‘jentys]n. 2sol. leader. ( < jemagon.)

Jentys Dovaogēdyro syt iksā. You are the leader of the Unsullied.

jēnqa [‘jeːɴqa] -ys, -on, -on

num. adj. I eight

jēnqelie [‘jeːɴqeli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III eighth

jēnqēpsa [jeːɴ’qeːpsa] indec.

num. eighty

jēnqīblie [jeːɴ’qiːbli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III eightieth

jeson [‘jeson]

n. 3ter. dust

jeva [‘jeva] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I your (pl.)

jevon [‘jevon]

poss.pron. 3ter. yours (pl.)

jikagon [ji’kagon]perfect: jittanv. to send (prob. jagon + -kagon.)Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. Send a man to the city gates.

Āeksio Oo jemot Mue Zaldrīzoti jittas. The Lord of Light sent the Mother of Dragons to you.[8]

jiōragon [‘ji͡oːɾagon]v. Obl. appl. C-fin.? to receive (at least in the sense of receiving a guest) ( < i- + iōragon to stand)[84]

Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.

jogeltigon [jo’geltigon]v. C-fin. to silence (prob. contains jo-.)

Elēni uhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.

johegagon [johe’gagon]v. C-fin. to continue to slaughter ( < jo- + *hegagon to slaughter.)

Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk

jollōragon [jol’loːragon]v. C-fin. to study +dat.?[85] ( < jor- + lōragon to drill, to bore).[85]

Issarori jollōris lua ria. A girl who studies people.[86]

jomōzugon [jo’moːzugon]v. V-fin. to continue to get drunk ( < jo- + mōzugon to drink.)

Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk

jorepagon [joɾe’pagon]v. C-fin. to pray (< jor- + epagon.)Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. Pick a god and pray.[68]→gen. to pray to, to beg

Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōo jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[60]

jorepnon [joɾe’pnon]n. 3ter. prayer ( < jorepagon + -non.)

Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. He has heard your prayers and answered them.

jorhakoɡon [jor̥a’koɡon][87]v. V-fin. to wring ondossa jorhakogon to wring one’s hands ( < jor- + hakogon to pull)

Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muo amāzinon jumbari? Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[8]

jorrāelagon [jor’raːɛ̯lagon]v. C-fin. to hold dear, to love; to need 88

Muus jorrāeliarzus: Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. Dearest Mother: So much news I have to give you from over the seas.

jumbagon [ˈjumbagon]perfect: jumptanv. Obl. appl. C-fin. to wait for ( < i + umbagon.)

Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muo amāzinon jumbari? Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[8]

jurnegon [‘juɾnegon]perfect: jūndan

v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to look at, regard[89] ( < i- + urnegon.)

K

kaerīnio [kaɛ̯’ɾiːni͡o]n. 3lun. savior (prob. *kaerīagon + -io.)

Jemot kaerīnio jittas! He has sent you a savior!

kaerīnnon [kaɛ̯’ɾiːnnon]n. 3ter. salvation (prob. *kaerīagon + -non.)

Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt? Will you fight for your own salvation?[8]

kasta [‘kasta] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I blue, green

kēli [‘keːli]n. 5lun. cat, pauc. kēlin herd of cats[59]; qelbōe kēli river otter; embōe kēli sea otter.

Kēlir morghūlis All cats must die.[90]

kēlio [‘keːli͡o]

n. 3lun. lion[26] ( < kēli + -io.)

kēlītsos [keː’liːtsos]

n. 3sol. little cat[91] ( < kēli + -ītsos.)

keligon [ke’ligon]perfect: kelitanv. V-fin. to stop, to come to a stop. Generally used intransitively, except in the perfect passive participle: keliton ended.Dovaogēdys …. Kelītīs. Unsullied …. Halt.

Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. And Now His Watch Is Ended.

kempa [‘kempa] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I heavy

kepa [‘kepa]n. 1lun. fatherrio kepa the girl’s father[59]

Kepo Tubis Biare Happy Father’s Day[92]

kesa [‘kesa] -ys, -on, -ordem.pron. adj. I this proximal, inanimate

Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. You should not have these powers.

kesir [‘kesir]dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entitites, “this place.”Kesir gīmī. You know thisKesir sepār īlza This too shall pass[93]

kesrio syt because, for; on account of this.

kesīr [‘kesiːr]dem.pron. adv. here (loc. of kesir.)

Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna. Tell the slavers I will receive them here.

kesy [‘kesy]dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entitieskeskydoso [kesky’doso]adv. in the same way, likewise. ( < demonstrative kes- + -kydoso.)

Mentyri idae jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.

kessa [‘kessa]intj. yes[4] (3s fut.act.ind. of sagon.[94])khal [xal],[95] khali [‘xali]

n. 6for Khal, title used for the leader of a Dothraki horde ( < Doth. khal.)

khalēsi [xaˈleːsi][96]n. 6for Khaleesi, Dothraki queen, wife of a khal ( < Doth. khaleesi.)

Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea

kiōs [ki͡oːs]

n. 3sol.[16] spring[78]

kipagon [kipagon][97]v. to ride

Sesīr kipi. And now we ride.[98]

kisagon [ki’sagon]

v. obsolete word for to eat. Word persists in Classical High Valyrian, but with a different meaning, not yet known.

kisalbar [kisalbar]n. 1aq? feast, contains -albar (cf. geralbar), presumably related to kisagon, an obsolete verb meaning “to eat”.

Lāroti syt kisalbar A Feast for Crows[99]

kivio [ˈkivi͡o]n. 3lun. promise

Jemot kivio uhe tepan I give you my word.

klios [kli͡os] klioh-

n. 3sol fish

kona [‘kona] -ys, -on, -or

dem.pron. adj. I that distal, inanimate

konir [‘konir]dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entities, that place.Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio uho konir drējior issa. They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.

Konir sagon kostos daor. That’s not possible.

konor [‘konor]

3aq. steam, vapor.[100]

konīr [‘koniːr]

dem.pron. adv. there (loc. of konir.)

kony [‘kony]

dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities

korze [‘koɾze]n. 4lun. longsword (cf. korzion)

Korzoti Jelmāzma A Storm of Swords[101]

korzion [‘korzi͡on]

n. 3ter. steel, especially, but not exclusively Valyrian steel (cf. korze.)

kostagon [‘kostagon]v. C-fin. to be able, can, may.Konir sagon kostos daor That’s not possible.Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. Any man who wishes to leave may leave.

Vestragon koston daor. I cannot say.

kostilus [‘kostilus]adv. perhaps; exp. please. (3s. fut.act.subj. of kostagon, lit. be it possible.)

Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. Your masters may have told you lies about me.

kostōba [ko’stoːba]adj. I powerful, strong ( < kostagon)Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. Youre a fool. The masters are too strong.

Kostōba Nēdenkā. Strong and Brave.[102]

kirimves [ki’ɾimves]n. 4sol. joy[103] ( < kirine + -ves.)

Naenio jēdoti kirimvose glaesātās! May you live happily for many years!

kirimvose [ki’ɾimvose], kirimvos [ki’ɾimvos]

exp. thank you. (Inst. of kirimves.)

kirine [ki’ɾine] -ioradj. II happy

Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.

kris [kris] krih-

n. 3sol. leg

krubo [‘krubo]

n. 3lun. dwarf

kustikagon [kusti’kagon]perfect: kustittanto strengthen, enable, encourage ( < kostagon + -ikagon.)

Ābre kustittas lua vala raqiros issa. The man who encouraged the woman is a friend.

kydȳbagon [ky’dyːbagon]perfect: kydȳptanv. C-fin. to measure (prob. contains -bagon.)

Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. It would be good to have been measured.[37]

kyndrir [‘kyndrir]

n. 6col. intestines

*kȳvagon [‘ky:vagon]

v. v. V-fin.. to plan (cf. kȳvanon[104])

kȳvanon [‘kyːvanon]

n. 3ter. plan, strategy[57] (-non formation off of unknown root.)

Kȳvakio [‘ky:vakio]

n. Cyvasse, a Volantene board game (cf. kȳvanon, lit. “strategist”)[105]

L

laes [laɛ̯s] laeh-

n. 3sol. eye.

laehurlion [laɛ̯’huɾli͡on]

n. 3ter face [106] (perh. laes + -uragon + -lion.)

laehurloqitta [laɛ̯huɾlo’qitta]adj. I faceless [106] ( < laehurlion face + -oqitta.)

Laehurloqitti Vali The Faceless Men.

lanta [‘lanta] -ys, -on, -onnum. adj. I two

…kesrio syt lanta iksan. …for now I am two.

laodigon [‘laɔ̯digon]

v. V-fin. to steal[101]

lāra [‘laːɾa]

n. 1lun. crow[107]

leghagon [le’ɣagon]perfect: lēdan

v. C-fin. to fill. →acc. the thing being filled, →gen. the substance with which it is filled, →inst. the instrument by which it is filled.

lēda [‘leːda] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I filled, full →gen. with…, of… (perf. part. of leghagon.)

lēkia [‘leːki͡a]

n. 1lun. older brother.[108]

lenton [‘lenton]

n. 3ter. house as in a physical building in which one lives.

lentor [‘lentor]n. 3aq. house in the sense of family, noble line, dynasty. (originally a relexified collective of lenton, which was then reanalyzed into a 3aq. noun.)

Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.

lentor [‘lentor]

n. 6col.3ter. village (col. of lenton.)

lentun [‘lentun]

n. 6pauc.3ter. community (relexified paucal of lenton.)

letagon [le’tagon]

v. C-fin. to tie, to bind[38]

lilagon [li’lagon]v. C-fin. to dance

Valar lilis. All men must dance.[109]

limagon [li’magon]perfect: limatan[110]v. V-fin. to cry

Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.[111]

lioragon [li͡o’ɾagon]perfect: liortan

v. C-fin. to sell

liorilaksa [li͡oɾi’laksa] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I for sale (fut.pass.part. of lioragon.)

līr [liːr]rel.pron. that which (is) for abstract or uncountable entitites (subst. of lua.)

Valo lurio vaoresan. I prefer that which is a mans.

līrinon [‘liːɾinon]3ter? smile ( < *līrigon to smile + -non.)

Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! Walk with a smile in your heart!

litse [‘litse]adj. II fair, beautiful.

Gryves se Ria Litse. The Bear and the Maiden Fair.

lo [lo]conj. if (perh. related to lua?)Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.lo sīr now that

Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[8]

lodaor [lodaɔ̯r]conj. otherwise.

Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.

lōgor [‘loːgor]

n. 6col. ship (cf. loktys.)

loktys [‘loktys]

n. 2sol. sailor. (cf. lōgor.)

lopor [‘lopor]

n. 3aq.3? salt

lōragon [‘loːragon]

v. C-fin. to drill, to bore Takes a dative object.[85]

*lōtinty [loː’tinty]

n. 2lun? pie[4]

lōz [loːz]

adj. II wet

lua [lu͡a]

rel.pron. adj.[112] who, which, that; agrees with head noun’s gender, case & number(?) in main clause.

lurugon [lu’ɾugon]

v. V-fin. to fold

lȳ [lyː]rel.pron. one which (is) for concrete, countable entities (subst. of lua.)

Valo luo vaoresan. I prefer one which is a mans.

lyka [‘lyka]adj. I quiet, silent[58]

Sȳndroso lykāpa Quiet as a shadow

lykāpsirī [ly’kaːpsiɾiː]adv. idly ( < *lykāpsa + -irī, presumably ultimately derived from lyka.)

Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muo amāzinon jumbari? Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[8]

lykemagon [lyke’magon]perfect: lykēdanv. C-fin. (irreg.) to silence (< lyka + emagon)

Aōle lykemās. Be quiet.

lyks [‘lyks]

n.3sol. peace [113] (cf. lyks.)

Lys [lys] lyh-n. 3sol. Lys

M

maghagon [ma’ɣagon]v. C-fin. to bring

Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. Iderennon maghan. I do not bring you commands. I bring you a choice.

manaeragon [ma’naɛ̯ɾagon]v. C-fin. to raise, →acc: to celebrate[114], biarvī manaeragon to celebrate (good fortune)[114].

Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.

mandia [‘mandia]

n. 1lun older sister. [115]

massa [‘massa]

n. 1lun bat. [116]

massigon [‘massigon]v. V-fin. to happen (perh. maz- + sigon, aorist of sagon.)

“Skorion massitas?” “Qringōntan.” “What happened?” “I failed.”

mazemagon [maze’magon]

v. C-fin. (irreg.). to take. ( lit. come to have, < maz- + emagon)

mazilībagon [mazi’lībagon]v. C-fin. to set (of the sun)[117] (lit. something like come to lie (< maz- + ilībagon, also seen in sytilībagon to belong, < ilagon to lie (down) + -ībagon.)

Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se āqot mazilībus. When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[50]

māzigon [‘maːzigon]perfect: māstan

v. V-fin. to come.

mazōregon [maz’oːɾegon]v. V-fin. to accept ( lit. come to hold < maz- + ōregon.)[84]

Belmurtī ivestrās kesĪr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.

mazverdagon [maz’veɾdagon]perfect: mazvēttanv. C-fin. to create (lit. come to arrange, < maz- + verdagon.)Valar mazvēttas luos belmossi zirȳle tolvȳs gaomoso iderennosō letis All men bind themselves with chains that they have created, through every deed and decision.[118]

Īlōn pryjassis līr īlōn mazverdis. What destroys us, creates us.[119]

mele [‘mele]-ior

adj. II red

memēbagon [me’meːbagon]v. C-fin. to advance. (-ēbagon formation off of unknown verb *memagon.)

Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! Unsullied! Forward march!

mentyn [‘mentyn]

n. 6pauc.2sol. battalion (relexicalized paucal of mentys.)

mentys [‘mentys]n. 2sol soldier,Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!col. mentyr

Mentyri idae jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.

mentyr [‘mentyr]

n. 6col.2sol. army

Merakses[120] [me’ɾakses]

n. 4sol. Meraxes, one of the dragons used in Aegon’s invasion of Westeros.

merbugon [‘merbugon]v. V-fin. to be hungry

Merbun. I’m hungry.[59]

mēre [‘meːɾe] -ior

num. adj. II one

mērī [‘meːɾiː]adv. only, alone

Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. Jemēle mērī sytilības. Your freedom is not mine to give. It belongs to you and you alone.

mhysa [‘mysa]

n. 1lun., or n. 6for.[121] the Ghiscari word for mother, widely used in Slaver’s Bay. One of Daenerys Targarien’s titles. ( < AV mysa < Ghiscari mhysa.)

mība [‘miːba] -ys, -on, -oradj. I short

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.

mijegon [mi’jegon]v. V-fin. to lack. →inst.

Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. Theres no country without a language.

mirre [‘mirre] -ioradj. II any This word has many uses, corresponding almost exactly to those of the English equivalent any; some.In the sense of all:Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. Any man who wishes to leave may leave.in the sense of whatever:Muar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.as opposed to none:Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.with a negative:Jomōzussis lua vala mirros ēngoso ȳdrassigon kostilos daor. A man who keeps getting drunk will not be able to speak any language[122]In the sense of some:

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi… Some old wounds never truly heal…

mirrī [‘mirriː]

adv. a bit, somwhat ( < mirre + -ī.)

mirros [‘mirros]indef.pron.something,[123] anything? (substantive of mirre.)

Ynot mirros epās! Ask me something![52]

mīsagon [‘miːsagon]

v. to defend, to protect. →acc. of the thing protected [124]

mīsio [‘miːsio]n. 3lun. protector [125]

Riītsoti mīsio. Protector of little girls.

mittys [‘mittys]n. 2sol. fool

Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. Youre a fool. The masters are too strong.

molry [‘molry]

n. 2lun. horn

morghe [‘moɾɣe]adj. II dead

Ionos Sōnaro morghe iksos daor. Jon Snow isn’t dead.[126]

morghon [‘moɾɣon]n. 3ter. death

Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

morghūlilare [moɾɣuːli’lare] -ior

adj. II mortal[127] (future participle of morghūljagon.)

morghūljagon [moɾ’ɣuːʎagon]perfect: morghūltanv. C-fin. to die ( < {{HVlex|morghe + -ūljagon.)of fire to burn outZȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōo jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[60]

Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting.

mōris [‘moːɾis]

n. 5sol. end, conclusion; loc. or adv. mōrī at the end, finally; va moriot always[4] lit. to the end.

mōzugon [‘moːzugon]

v. V-fin. to drink

mua [‘muɲa]n. 1lun. mother. Muo ēngos mother tongue.Mua Zaldrīzoti. the Mother of Dragons.Coll. muar “parents.”

Muar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.

mundagon [‘mundagon]v. to be miserable

He hears the Stone Men in their misery mundari dorenki rybis

munnon [‘munnon]

n. 3ter. sorrow (perh. mundagon + -non?)

Mȳr [myːr]

prop. n. 3aq. Myr

myrdys [myrdys]n. 2sol. or 2lun. deer[58]

Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.

N

nābēmagon [naː’beːmagon]v. to unfasten, to unleash; to fire a siege engine ( < nā- + *bēmagon, presumably meaning to

fasten, restrain.)

nādīnagon [naː’diːnagon]v. to remove ( < nā- + dīnagon)

Geltī aōhe nādīnās. Remove your helmet.

naejon [‘naɛ̯jon]

n. 3ter. front

naejot [‘naɛ̯jot]postp.→gen. in front of; adv. forward. (the locative or dative case of naejon.)

Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! Unsullied! Forward march!

naejos [‘naɛ̯jos]

n. 3sol. breast (cf. naejon.)

naena [‘naɛ̯na] -ys, -on, -or

num. n. 1lun. a countless number, too high to count (cf. naenie).

naenie [‘naɛ̯ni͡e] -ior

adj. III many (cf. naena).

nāgīdāves [naːgiː’daːves]n. 4sol. Inequality[34]

Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[35]

nākostōbāves [na:kosto:’ba:ves]n. 4sol. weakness[128] (< nā- + kostōba + -ves.)

Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. Love is weakness.

nāmorghūlilare [naːmoɾɣuːli’lare] -ior

adj. II immortal[127] ( < nā- + morghūljagon.)

nāmorghūlilaros [naːmoɾɣuːli’laros]

n. 3sol. immortal[127] (nominalized form of nāmorghūlilare.)

nāpāsiros [naː’paːsiros]n. 3sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsiros subst. aor. part. of pāsagon.)

Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

nāpāstys [naː’paːstys]n. 2sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsagon + -tys)

Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[8]

āqa [‘ɲaːqa]adj. I eastern. [129] [130]Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se āqot mazilībus. When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.

[50]

nāvar [‘naːvar]

n. 1aq. lake

nēdenka [neː’deŋka]adj. I brave ( < nēdys + -enka.)

Kostōba Nēdenkā. Strong and Brave.[102]

nēdenkirī [neː’deŋkiɾiː]

adv. bravely ( < nēdenka + -ī.)

nēdys [‘neːdys]n. 2sol brave person (substantivized form of *nēda brave.)

Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

nehugon [ne’hugon]v. V-fin. to leak → inst. of the substance leaked, e.g. ānogrosa nehugon to bleedInsv. anehugon to leak with impersonal subjects.

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.

nekēpty [ne’keːpty]n. 2lun. idol (likely a substantivied perfect participle from unattested *nekēbagon, possibly meaning to carve, compare nektogon to cut, and the English expression graven image.)

Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōo jemagon. Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.

nektogon [‘nektogon]v. V-fin. to cut.*elly, -sn. 2? skin, flesh as a specific entity?

Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

ellyr [‘ɲellyr]n. 6col.2?. skin, flesh as a general substance?va ellyrty perzys fire made flesh

Va ellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oo irudy. Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.

epegon [‘ɲepegon]

v. V-fin. to sew

ōghe [‘ɲoːɣe]n. 4lun arm

Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ōghossi ōressiks. I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.

ōghoqitta [ɲoːɣo’qitta]adj. I armless ( < ōghe + -oqitta.)

oghoqitta rīza armless lizard[51]

ombes [‘ɲombes]

n. 4sol[16] elephant[131]

nopāzma [no’paːzma]n. 1lun hell[4]

Sīkudi nopāzmi! Seven hells!

uha [‘ɲuha] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I my

uhon [‘ɲuhon]

poss.pron. 3ter. 3ter. mine

uhoso [ɲu’hoso]adv. in my way, as I wish (ins. of uha.)

Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se uhoso ziry rijībin. You worship Him your way, and I’ll worship Him mine.

nūmāzma [nuː’maːzma]n. 1lun. meaning, essence, the truth of it (probably nūmo + -āzma.)Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.

Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. You quit, you mean.

nūmio [‘nuːmi͡o]

n. 3lun. pearl[132] (cf. nūmo)

nūmo [‘nuːmo]

n. 3lun. seed (cf. nūmio)

uqir [‘ɲuqir]

n. 5aq.[16] ashes

nuspes [‘nuspes]

4sol. cow, female head of cattle

nyke [‘nyke]

pers.pron. I.

nykēla [ny’keːla]

refl. 1lun. myself

O

obar [‘obar]

n. 1aq. curve

obūljagon [o’buːʎagon]v. C-fin. to bend [133]reflexive to bend the knee ( < *ob- seen in obar curve + -ūljagon.)

Se morghon jāle obulilza. And death itself will bend the knee.

obūljarion [o’buːʎaɾi͡on]n. 3ter. surrender (< obūljagon)

Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.

ōdres [‘oːdres]

n. 4sol. pain; damage.[134]

ōdrikagon [oː’drikagon]v. C-fin.? “to harm.” ( < ōdres + -ikagon.)

daorys ziry ōdrikilza. no one will harm him.

ōdrio [‘oːdri͡o]n. 3lun. wound (from the same root as ōdres, but “different … because its a specific pain, not a general sensation.”[135])

Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi… Some old wounds never truly heal…

ōghar [‘oːɣar]

n. 1aq.[16] hair

ohīlagon [oˈhiːlagon]

v. C-fin. to stab (poss. oz- + hīlagon.)

oiro [o’iro]

n. 3lun. fat

ojughagon [oju’ɣagon]perfect: ojūdan[136]

v. C-fin. to lose[89] ( < oz- + rughagon.)

oktion [‘okti͡on]n. 3ter city

Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. Send a man to the city gates.

olvie [‘olvi͡e] olvioradj. III much, manyOlvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. I dont see many priestesses of Rhllor in the Riverlands.

Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. So much news I have to give you from over the seas.

ondor [‘ondor]n. 6col.3sol. powers (relex. col. of ondos.)

Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. You should not have these powers.

ondos [‘ondos]

n. 3sol. hand. For ondor and ondoso see the respective entries.

ondoso [‘ondoso]postp.→gen. by, at the hand of, used with passive verbs to mark the agent. (Inst. of ondos.)

Valo ondoso Aerys iderēbaks. Aerys is selected for by the man.

onduragon [ondu’ragon]v. C-fin. to take up ( < ondos + -uragon)

Iā jemēla zȳhys perzī ondurilāt? Or will you take up her flames yourselves?[8]

ōos [‘oːɲos]n. 3sol. light

Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōo jemagon. Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.

ōrbar [‘oːɾbar]

n. 1aq.[16] smoke

ōregon [‘oːɾegon]v. V-fin. to hold

Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ōghossi ōressiks. I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.

ospȳnagon [os’spyːnagon]

v. C-fin. to squeeze (probably oz- + unknown verb *pȳnagon.)

ossēnagon [os’seːnagon]v. C-fin. to kill, to slay. ( < oz- + sēnagon.)

Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!

ossȳngagon[137] [os’syːŋgagon]

v. to terrify, terrorize (Etymology unknown but does not contain oz-[138], and is not primordially related to zūgagon[139].)

ossȳngnon [os’syːŋgnon][20]n. 3ter. terror ( < ossȳngagon + -non.)

Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. For the night is dark and full of terrors

otāpagon [o’taːpagon]v. to think

Skoros otāpā? What do you think?

ōtor [‘oːtor]

n. 3aq. ram, male sheep.[23]

ovoo [o’voɲo]

n. 3lun. jasmine flower.[140]

ozbāragon [o’zbaːɾagon]perfect: ozbārtanv. C-fin.? to brand (contains oz-.)

Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.

ozdakonon [ozda’konon]n. 3ter. running away ( < oz- + dakogon + -non, by way of *ozdakogon presumably to run away, to flee .)ozdakonot dīnagon put to flight, chase away.

Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. Those who love the darkness chased her away.[8]

ozzālagon [oz’zaːlagon]v. C-fin. to burn away ( < oz- + zālagon.)

Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?ref name=”DJP601″/>

P

paez [paɛ̯z]

adj. II slow.[141]

paghagon [pa’ɣagon]

v. C-fin. breathe

paktot [‘paktot]adv. to the right; to the side, beside

Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa Your enemy is beside you.

pamagon [pa’magon]

v. C-fin. to rub

pār [paːr]

pron. then, at that time

parklon [‘paɾklon]

n. 3ter. meat

parmon [‘paɾmon]

n. 3ter. grass

pālegon [‘paːlegon]

v. V-fin. to turn, to twist, to rotate

pāletilla [paːle’tilla]

n. 1aq.[16] crown[142] ( < pālegon + -illa.)

pāsagon [‘paːsagon]perfect: pāstanv. C-fin. to trust esp. in perf., believe esp. in imperf.[143]

Kepa zȳhe tale pāsiles. The father believed his daughter.

pelar [‘pelar]

n. 1aq wave[144]

pelōe [pe’loːɲe]

adj. II coming from the waves (< pelar + -ōe)[144]

pēko [‘peːko]

n. 3lun[16] olive

peldio [‘peldi͡o]n. 3lun. snake, viper (possibly from a verb root *pel- meaning something like to wiggle, undulate, wave? Cf. pelar.)

Peldiō sȳndor. The viper’s shadow.[145]

pendagon [‘pendagon]

v. V-fin. to wonder.

perzys [‘peɾzys]n. 2sol. fire, flame;[146] zīrtys perzys[147] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian.Perzys Ānogār. Fire and Blood.

col. perzyr fire as a substance.

pikībagon [pi’kiːbagon]v. C-fin. to read. ( < *pikagon + -ībagon.)

perfect: pikīptan

pirta [‘piɾta]

adj. III false (etymology unknown. Possibly derived from an obsolete verb *piragon to lie, but no such verb exists in the Classical language.)

pirtir [‘piɾtir]n. 5aq. falsehood, lie (subs. of pirta.)

Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. Your masters may have told you lies about me.

pilogon [pi’logon]v. V-fin. to hold.

Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās Slay every man who holds a whip!

pogry [‘pogry]

n. 2lun. nail

pōnta [‘poːnta]

pers.pron. they.

pōntāla [poːn’taːla]

pers.pron. themselves

pōja [‘poːja] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I their

pōjon [‘poːjon]

pron. theirs

pragrion [‘pragri͡on]

n. 3ter bark

prūbres [‘pruːbres]

n. 4sol apple [148]

prūmia [‘pruːmi͡a]n. 1lun. heart.Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio uho konir drējior issa. They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.

uho prūmiā iksā. You are in my heart.[149]

pryjagon [pry’jagon]perfect: pryjatanv. V-fin. to destroy;[150] strike off. Perf.pass.part. pryjata “destroyed.”

Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! Strike the chains off every slave you see!

pryjatys [pry’jatys]n. 2sol. destroyer, breaker ( < pryjagon + -tys.)

Belmo Pryjatys Breaker of Chains

puatta [ˈpu͡atta] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I rotten (possibly a perfect participle)

pungilla [puŋ’gilla]

n. 1aq. nostril ( < pungos + -illa.)

pungos [‘puŋgos]

n. 3sol. nose

puila [pu’ɲila]

adj. I worn, weather beaten; of language proficiency rusty

purtagon [‘purtagon]

v. C-fin. to scratch

pyghagon [py’ɣagon]v. C-fin. to jump; to beat (of the heart)perfect: pȳdan

…rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. … with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.

pykagon [py’kagon]

v. C-fin. to spit

pyrys [‘pyɾys]num. 2sol. thousand[151]col.ins. pyryrzy by the thousands

Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

Q

qablos [‘qablos]

n. 3sol.[16] liver

qana [ˈqana] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I sharp

qanemagon [qane’magon]v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sharpen. ( < qane + -emagon.)

perfect: qanēdan

qelbar [‘qelbar]

n. 1aq. river.

Qelbria [‘qelbri͡a]n. 1lun. the Riverlands.

Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. I dont see many priestesses of Rhllor in the Riverlands.

qelbōe [qel’boːɲe]

adj. II that lives/comes from the river (< qelbar + -ōe.)[152] qelbōe kēli river otter.

qeldlie [‘qeldlq] -ioradj. III yellow, golden-colored

Ondos Qeldlie Goldenhand[153]

qēlītsos [‘qeːliːtsos]n. 3sol. candle ( < qēlos + -ītsos, lit. app. little star.)

Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōo jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[60]

qēlos [‘qeːlos]n. 3sol. star (original meaning may be torch: cf. qēlītsos.)

Vēzos qēlossās uho. My sun and stars.[59]

qilōnagon [qi’loːnagon]perfect: qilontanv. C-fin.? to scourge[154] (cf. qilōny whip.)

Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.

qilōnarion [qi’loːnaɾi͡on]n. 3ter punishment (substantivized participle from qilōnagon to scourge.)

Qilōnario Geron. Walk of Punishment.

qilōny [qi’loːny]n. 2lun. whip

Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. Slay every man who holds a whip.

qlādugon [‘qlaːdugon]v. V-fin. to drag

Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[8]

qogron [‘qogron]

n. 3ter. line (prob. in the military sense; see qogror below.)

qogror [‘qogror]n. 6col.3ter. ranks; class, type, gender (relexicalized collective of qogron).Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ You will select your own leader, from amongst your own ranks.

vēzenkon qogror. solar class.[67]

qopsa [‘qopsa] -ys, -on, -oradj. I hard, difficult

Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.

qrīdronnor [qriː’dronnor]n. 6col.3ter. Chaos.[65] (< qrin- + rholagon + -non, lit. (pejorative) mixture.)[155]

Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. Chaos is a ladder.

qrīdrughagon [qriːdru’ɣagon]

v. C-fin. to throw away. ( < qrin- + rughagon, with the same n-deletion rule[156] seen in bianor→biādra.)

qrillaetagon [qril’laɛ̯tagon]v. C-fin.? to rape (contains qrin-.)

Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.

qrimbrōzagon [ˈqrimbroːzagon]perfect: qrimbrōstan

v. C-fin. to curse (lit. to name badly, < qrin- + brōzagon.)

qrimbughegon [qrimbuˈɣegon]

v. V-fin. to drown[136] ( < qrin- + bughegon.)

qringaomagon [qriŋ’gaɔ̯magon]v. C-fin. to fail, to err, to sin. ( < qrin- + gaomagon.)perfect: qringōntan”Skorion massitas?” “Qringōntan.” “What happened?” “I failed.”

Valar Qringaomis. All men must fail.[157]

qringaomio [qriŋ’gaɔ̯mi͡o]

n. 3lun. evildoer ( < qringaomagon + -io.)[158]

qringaomnon [qriŋ’gaɔ̯mnon]n. 3ter. sin ( < qringaomagon + -non.)Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.hen pōjo qringaomnoti for their sins

Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.

qrinuntenka [qrinun’teŋka]

adj. I antagonistic[159]

qrinuntenkāves [qrinunteŋ’kaːves]n. 4sol. antagonism.[34]

Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[35]

qrinuntys [qri’nuntys].n. 2sol. enemy

Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa Your enemy is beside you.

qryldes [‘qryldes]

4sol. male pig

quba [ˈquba] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I bad

qumblie [‘qumbli͡e]

adj. III thick

qupēgrie [qup’eːgri͡e]adj. III terrible ( < possibly the same root as in quba + -ēgrie.)

Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. His Valyrian is terrible[8]

quptenka [qup’teŋka] -ys, -on, -oradj. I pagan; Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue; ( < quptys.)

Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? Do you speak the Common tongue?

quptys [‘quptys]n. 2sol. heathen

Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk

qurdon [ˈquɾdon]

n. 3ter. table

qūvy [ˈquːvy]

n. 2lun. tear

R

raedes [‘raɛ̯des]

4sol. scorpion

rāenābagon [raːɛ̯’naːbagon]

v. C-fin. to wash ( < rāena- + -ēbagon.)

rāenagon [‘raːɛ̯nagon]

v. C-fin. to wipe

rāenion [‘raːɛ̯ni͡on]

3ter shore (probably connected to rāenagon and rāenābagon, with the idea of the land that the sea washes.)

rȳ [ryː]post.→gen. between, through, across, throughout.

Jevo glaesoti rȳ buzdari istiat. You have been slaves all your life.

rāelagon [‘raːɛ̯lagon]v. C-fin. to hold

Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza. He holds us safe.

rāpa [‘raːpa]

adj. I soft

rāpūljagon [raː’puːʎagon]perfect: rāpūltan

v. C-fin. to soften. (rāpa + -ūljagon.)

raqagon [ra’qagon]perfect: rattan[160]v. C-fin.? to like, to love “lighter” than jorrāelagon,[161] to enjoyDohaeriakson raqan. I like to be served.[37]Avy jorrāelan. Avy raqan. I love you. I love you.

New Yorkī sōnari raqō daor? Are you enjoying winter in New York?[162]

raqiros [ra’qiros]n. 3sol. friend (relex. aor. part. of raqagon).

Zūgagon daor, uhys raqiros. Dont be afraid, my friend.

raqiarzy [ra’qi͡aɾzy]

n. 2lun beloved[163] (nominalized aorist passive participle of raqagon.)

raqnon [‘raqnon]n. 3ter. love[128]

Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. Love is weakness.

rēbagon [reː’bagon]v. to walk, to pass. [164]Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! Walk with a smile in your heart!

Ynot rēbagon. Let me pass.

relgos [‘relgos]

n. 3sol. mouth

remio [‘remi͡o]n. 3lun. gate

Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. Send a man to the city gates.

renigon [re’nigon]

v. V-fin. to touch with the hand.

Rhaegal [‘r̥aɛ̯gal]

n. 6for.[165] Rhaegal

rhaenagon [‘r̥aenagon]perfect: rhēdanv. C-fin. to meet; in certain contexts to begin.

Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. I begin my day with tea.[166]

rhēdegon [‘r̥eːdegon]v. V-fin. to know a person, to be acquainted with (the eventative form of rhaenagon, to meet.)

Ābra kepe rhēdes lua vala raqiros issa. The man whose father the woman knows is a friend.

rhinka [‘r̥iŋka]

adj. I (of a material or texture) rough, coarse; by extension unpleasant[167]

rholagon [r̥o’lagon]

v. C-fin. to mix[155]

rhovagon [r̥o’vagon]v. C-fin. to bark (perh. onomatopoeic)Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[59]*rhūqesn. 4sol. pigeon[4]

Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. More pigeon pie, please.

rijagon [ri’jagon]perfect: riddanv. C-fin. to praise. (cf. rijes.)

Dārys azanti rijas. The king praises the soldier.[168]

rijes [ri’jes]n. 4sol. praise. (cf. rijagon.)rijes aōt praise to you, poss. an expression for congratulations![169]

Rijes aōt, Papayus! Praise to you, Papaya![29]

rijībagon [ri’jiːbagon]v. C-fin. to worship ( < rijagon + -ībagon.)

Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se uhoso ziry rijībin. You worship Him your way, and I’ll worship Him mine.

rijnor [‘rijnor]n. 6col.3ter. praise ( col. of *rijnon < rijagon + -non.)Rijnondi praise (to you) poss. an expression for congratulations[170]

Rijnondi, Donis! Praise (to you), Don!

ria [‘riɲa]n. 1lun. girl, maiden; childGryves se Ria Litse. The Bear and the Maiden Fair.qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn rie dōre ōdrikātās. slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.

coll. riar children.

riītsos [ri’ɲiːtsos]

n. 3sol. little child; little girl[171] (ria + -ītsos.)

ripo [‘ripo]

n. 3lun. the pit or stone of a fruit.

rīza [‘riːza]n. 1lun. reptile, lizard

oghoqitta rīza armless lizard[51]

rizmon [‘rizmon]

n. 3ter. sand

rōbir [‘roːbir]n. 5aq.[16] fig.

Sparos rōbir angotas. Who bit the fig?

ropagon [ro’pagon]perfect: ropatas[172]

v. V-fin. to fall

rōva [‘roːva] , comp. rōvyktaadj. I big

Davido zaldrīzes aōhos zaldrīzose rōvyktys issa. Davids dragon is bigger than your dragon.

rōvēgrie [roː’veːgri͡e]adj. III great, excellent ( < rōva + -ēgrie.)

rōvēgrior intj. “excellent”[59]

rōvēgrī [roː’veːgriː]adv. greatly, enormously ( < rōvēgrie + -ī.)

Rōvēgrī qringōntan. Ive erred enormously[173]

ruaka [ˈru͡aka]

adj. I dull

ruaragon [ru͡a’ɾagon]v. C-fin. hide (oneself); hen→dat[174] from…

Kēli hen aōt ruarza. The cat is hiding from you.[175]

rudigon [ru’digon]

v. V-fin. dig

rughagon [ru’ɣagon]perfect: rūdanv. C-fin. to drop; in the reflexive to quit.

Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. You quit, you mean.

rūklon [‘ruːklon]n. 3ter. flower[176]

Rūkluni ynot teptas lua vala bisy issa. This is the man who gave me some flowers.

Rullor [rul’lor][177]6for[178] R’hllor, the Lord of Light (possibly from Asshai’i.)

Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. I dont see many priestesses of Rhllor in the Riverlands.

rūs[179] [ruːs]n. 3sol. baby, child.Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza, kesrio syt lanta iksan, rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. He holds us safe, for now I am two, with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.

Aōha rūho syt. Ipradon. For your baby. To eat.

rȳbagon [‘ryːbagon]perfect: ryptanv. C-fin. to hear.

Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. He has heard your prayers and answered them.

ryptegon [‘ryptegon]

v. V-fin. to listen (eventative of rȳbagon.)

rytsa [‘rytsa]

adj. I healthy

rytsas [‘rytsas]

exp. hello. ( < rytsa)

S

saelie [‘saɛ̯li͡e] -ior

num. adj. III third

sagon [‘sagon]perfect: istan

v. irreg. to be. 3s forms issa[180] and kessa[4] may be used to mean yes.

sambar [‘sambar]

n. 1aq. cloud

sambrar [‘sambrar]

n. 6col.1aq. fog (col. of sambar cloud.)

se [se]conj. and

Gryves se Ria Litse. The Bear and the Maiden Fair.

sēnagon [‘seːnagon]v. C-fin. to kill. [181]

Perzys zaldrīzi sēnagon kostos daor. Fire cannot kill a dragon.

sepār [‘sepaːr]conj. and especially where consecutivity is implied, and then, next ( < se + an unknown element -pār.)Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.conj. just as

Elēni uhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.

sesīr [‘sesiːr]conj. even; and now; and so. ( < se “and” + sīr “now”.)Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. The knight says that even the brave men fear death.Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. And Now His Watch Is Ended.

Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.

sētegon [‘seːtegon]v. V-fin. to make possibly, more specifically to forge (etymology unknown though it is at least potentially eventative in origin.)[182]

Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[8]

sīglie [‘siːgli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III seventh

sigligon [‘sigligon]perfect: siglitanv. V-fin. to bear again ( < sikagon + -ligon.)in the passive to be born again

Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

sikagon [si’kagon]perfect: sittanv. C-fin. to give birth to, to bear (prob. sagon, or its aorist sigon, + -ikagon.)Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.to light a candle

Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōo jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[60]

sīkuda [‘siːkuda] -ys, -on, -on

num. adj. I seven

sīkudēpsa [‘siːkudeːpsa] indec.

num. seventy

sīmonagon [siːmo’nagon]perfect: sīmontan

v. C-fin. to rise

sindigon [‘sindigon]perfect: sinditav. V-fin. to buy[183]

Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.

sīr [siːr]adv. nowYn dāeri vali sīr issi But you are free men now.lo sīr now that

Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[8]

sīudīblie [‘siːudiːbli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III seventieth

skore [‘skoɾe] -ior

int.pron. adj. II which for inanimates, what

skorī [‘skoɾiː]int.pron. when?Skorī vala rōbir angotas? When did the man bite the fig?conj./rel.pron. when

Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.

skorion [‘skoɾi͡on]int.pron. 3ter. what esp. for places, mass nouns, and abstracts”Skorion massitas?” “What happened?”

skorio syt why

skoriot [‘skoɾi͡ot]int.pron. where? (loc. of skorion.)

SKORIOT UHYZ ZALDRĪZESSE ISSI?! WHERE ARE MY DRAGONS?![184]

skoros [‘skoɾos]int.pron. 3sol. what esp. for concrete, countable itemsSkoros otāpā? What do you think?Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? What are your names?Skoros gaomā? What are you doing?[185]

skoro syt why

skorkydoso [skoɾky’doso]int.pron. how ( < skore + -kydoso.)Skorkydoso udlilat? How will you respond?[8]

Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?[59]

skorȳso [‘skoɾyːso]

int.pron. why; conj. because properly used in this sense only in response to a question. (instrumental of skoros.)

sombāzmion [som’baːzmi͡on]

n. 3ter. castle[186] ( < *somby, possibly meaning “shield,” cf. sumby, -āzma, -ion.)

sōna [‘soːna]

n. 1lun. snow. gen.col. Sōnaro Snow surname used by acknowledged bastards in The North of Westeros.

sōnar [‘soːnar]n. 6col.1lun. winter[187] (relex. col. of sōna.)

Sōnar Māzis Winter Is Coming

sōpagon [‘soːpagon]

v. C-fin. to laugh

sōvegon [‘soːvegon]

v. V-fin. to fly

sōvemagon [‘soːvemagon]v. C-fin. (irreg.) to make fly ( < sōvegon + -emagon.)

Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. Stories can make us fly.[188]

spare [‘spaɾe] -ior

int.pron. adj. II which for animates

sparion [‘spaɾi͡on]

int.pron. 3ter. who esp. for mass nouns, and abstracts.

sparos [‘spaɾos]int.pron. who esp. for concrete, countable entities.Sparos rōbir angotas. Who bit the fig?Sparos Iono Sōnaro mua issa? Who is Jon Snow’s mother?[189]

sparo syt For whom? On account of whom? For whose sake?

stepagon [‘stepagon]perfect: steptanv. Insv. C-fin. to share.

Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōo jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[60]

sūmar[190] [‘suːmar] sūbr-n. 1aq. tea

Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. I begin my day with tea.[166]

suvion [ˈsuvio͡n]n. 3ter ice

Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.

sylugon [sy’lugon]perfect: sylutanv. V-fin. to try[191]

Elēni uhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.

sylutegon [sylu’tegon]

v. V-fin. trans. to taste something[39] (eventative of sylugon).

sȳndor [‘syːndor]n. 3aq.[192] shadow [145]Peldiō sȳndor. The viper’s shadow.Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[70]sȳndror darkness

se sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr and those who love the darkness[8]

sȳrī [ˈsyːɾiː]adv. well

Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. May it serve you well.

syt [syt]postp.→gen. for. Skoro syt why? (prob. historically the locative or dative of an unknown or lost noun, perhaps something like *sion, or maybe something related to sȳz, with the idea of for the good of….)rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.sytiderēbagon [sytide’ɾeːbagon]perfect: sytiderēptanv. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose for, select for. +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive), +dat: the thing selected. ( < syt- + i- + derēbagon.)Vala rōbrȳti Aeri sytiderēbza. The man selects figs for Aerys.”

Aeri sytiderēbaks. Aerys is selected for.

sytilībagon [syti’liːbagon]v. C-fin. to belong. (prob. < syt- + il- + -ībagon.)sytivīlībagon [sytiviː’liːbagon]v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < syt- + i- + vīlībagon “to fight”.)

Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? Will you fight for me? As free men?

sȳz [syːz] sȳrioradj. II goodKydȳptakson sȳz kesos. It would be good to have been measured.[37]Yn kesys tubis hen mirro tubiot sȳrpys issa. But today is as good a day as any.[193]

Jaehossas sȳris sātās Gods be good![71]

T

tāemītsos [‘taːɛ̯miːtsos]

n. 3sol. stick (diminutive of unattested root tāem- + -ītsos, presumably meaning something like branch.)

tala [‘tala]

n. 1lun. daughter[194]

Targārien [taɾ’gaːɾi͡en]n. 4ter.[16] Targaryen a family name.

Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.

tatagon [ta’tagon]v. C-fin. to finish.

perfect: tetan

tēgie [‘teːgi͡e] -ior

adj. III curved

tēgigon [‘teːgigon]

v. V-fin. intrans. to curve, be curved.

tēgir [‘teːgir]

n. 5aq. curve

tegon [‘tegon]

n. 3ter. ground. pauc. tegun land. coll.[195] tegor lands collectively.[196]

tegōe [te’goːɳe] -or

adj. II terrestrial ( < tegon + -ōe.)

tegun [‘tegun]n. 6col.3ter. land. coll. tegor lands collectively.[196] (relex. pauc. of tegon)

Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[70]

temby [‘temby]

n. 2lun. leaf.

tembyr [‘tembyr]

n. 6col.2lun. book.[197] (col. of temby.)

tepagon [‘tepagon]perfect: teptanv. C-fin. to give.

Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. Today I give you freedom.

Thoros [‘θoɾos]

n. 3sol(?) Thoros, a name.

tīkor [‘tiːkor]

n. 6col.3sol. flock of birds[198] (col. of tīkos.)

tīkos [‘tiːkos]

n. 3sol. feather[198]

tīkun [‘tiːkun] (pauc. of tīkos.)n. 6pauc.3sol. wing[198]

Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar Dark Wings, Dark Words

timpa [‘timpa] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I white

tindon [‘tindon]

n. 3ter. root

tista [’tista] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I dry (poss. a perf. part.)

tistālior [ti’staːli͡or]n. 6col?.3ter? bank (prob. coll. of *tistālion store room lit. drying place < tista + -lion.)

Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]

tolī [‘toliː]adv. above; after[61]excessively, tooMittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. Youre a fool. The masters are too strong.more[4]

Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. More pigeon pie, please.

tolie [‘toli͡e] -ioradj. III other (perh. lit. higher, cf. tolī, toliot.)

Muar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.

toliot [‘toli͡ot]

post.→gen. above, over; after[61]

tolmio [‘tolmi͡o]

3lun. far side, far wall[199]

tolmiot [‘tolmi͡ot]adv. farpost.→gen. across (loc. of tolmio, “far side.” This is why it can be combined with hen.)

Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. So much news I have to give you from over the seas.

tolvie [‘tolvi͡e] -ioradj. III every

Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. Slay every man who holds a whip.

tolvys [‘tolvys]indef.pron. 2sol. everyone

Tolvys morghūlis. Everyone must die.

tōma [‘toːma] -ys, -on, -on

num. adj. I five

tōmo [‘toːmo]

n. 3lun. elderberry plant ( < tōma, referring to the five-petaled blossoms.)

tōmelie [‘toːmeli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III fifth

tōmēpsa [toː’meːpsa] indec.

num. fifty

tōmīblie [toː’miːbli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III fiftieth

tōmītsos [toː’miːtsos]

n. 3sol. elderberry ( < tōmo + -ītsos.)

trēsy [‘treːsy]n. 2lun. son.[200]

Tȳni Trēsi Second Sons

trūma [‘truːma]

adj. I deep

trūmirī [‘truːmiɾiː]

adv. deeply ( < trūma + -ī.)

tubis [‘tubis]n. 5sol. day; kesȳ tubī, tubī[4] adv. todayKesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. Today I give you freedom.

Tubī daor. Not today.[4]

turgon [tuɾ’gon]

n. 3ter. worm.[201]

tymagon [ty’magon]perfect: tymptan

v. C-fin. to play

tymptir [‘tymptir]n. 5aq. game (substantivized perf. part. of tymagon.)

Tymptir Dēmalȳti A Game of Thrones[32]

tȳne [‘tyːne] -ior

num. adj. II second; secondary.

tyvagon [tyˈvagon]perfect: tȳdan

v. C-fin. to crawl, to creep

tyvaros [tyˈvaɾos]

n.sol. serpent, snake (subst. part. of tyvagon.)

U

ubles [‘ubles]

n. 4sol. eel

udir [‘udir]n. 5aq. word[202] (poss. distantly related to ȳdragon.)[203]Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar Dark Wings, Dark WordsMay also be used, just like English word, in the sense of news:

Se vasīr dorior udir Drogo bē? And still no word of Drogon?[204]

udligon [u’dligon]perfect: udlitanv. V-fin. to respond, to answer (Poss. *ud- seen udir + -ligon.)May be used intransitively:Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.or transitively:

Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. He has heard your prayers and answered them.

udrāzma [u’draːzma]n. 1lun. command ( < udr- + -āzma.)

Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. I do not bring you commands.

udrir [‘udrir]n. 6col.5aq. language (relex. coll. of udir.)Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. Theres no country without a language.

Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? Do you speak Valyrian?[59]

uēmagon [‘u͡eːmagon]

v. C-fin. to vomit (could possibly be a Loc. appl. from u-, but if so the base verb is not yet attested. The long ē makes emagon highly unlikely.)

uēpa [‘u͡eːpa]adj. I old

Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.

ūja [‘uːja]

pers.pron. it, (he, she) (terrestrial, aquatic).

umbagon [ˈumbagon]perfect: umptan[75]

v. C-fin. to stay, to wait, to remain[205]

ūagon [uː’ɳagon]

v. C-fin. to count

ūndegon [‘uːndetan]v. V-fin. to see, to catch sight of, to sight (eventative of urnegon.)Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. I dont see many priestesses of Rhllor in the Riverlands.

Ābre kustittas lue vale ūndetan. I saw the man who encouraged the woman.

unektogon [u’nektogon]

v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to cut out. ( < u- + nektogon.)

urnēbagon [uɾ’neːbagon]

v. C-fin. to watch. ( < urnegon + -ēbagon.)

urnēbion [uɾ’neːbi͡on]n. 3ter. watch.

Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. And Now His Watch Is Ended.

urnegon [‘uɾnegon]perfect: ūndan

v. V-fin. to see.

V

va [va]prep.→loc. towards, at, near; →dat. to, all the way up to.

Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. Send a man to the city gates.

vāedagon [‘vaːɛ̯dagon]perfect: vāettan[75]

v. C-fin. to sing

vāedar [‘vaːɛ̯dar]n. 1aq. song

Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.

vala [‘vala]n. 1lun. man. Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis

Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. Any man who wishes to leave may leave.

valonqar [va’loɴqar]

n. 1aq. little brother (Some propose a connection to vala man, but this is uncertain.)[206]

Valyria [va’lyɾi͡a]n. 1lun. Valyria; the Valyrian language.Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. His Valyrian is terrible[8]Valyrio, Valyrio udrir the Valyrian language.

Valyrio muo ēngos uhys issa. Valyrian is my mother tongue.

Valyrīha [valy’ɾiːha]

adj. I. Valyrian. ( < Valyria + -sīha.)

Valyrīhy [valy’ɾiːhy]

n. 2lun. Valyrian, i.e. a Valyrian person, or a person from the Valyrian peninsula. (Substantivized form of Valyrīha.)

valzȳrys [val’zyːɾys]n. 2sol. husband ( < vala + -zȳrys.)

Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ōghossi ōressiks. I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.

vamiot [‘vami͡ot]

adv. near (possibly the locative of an unknown noun, containing va-)

vandis [‘vandis]

n. 5sol. bull, male head of cattle

vaogemagon [vaɔ̯ge’magon]perfect: vaogēdanv. C-fin. (irreg.) to sully, to defile ( < *vaog- seen in vaogenka + -emagon.)

Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.

vaogenka [vaɔ̯’geŋka] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I dirty ( < vaog-, as in dovaogedy, + -enka.)

vaokses [‘vaɔ̯kses]

n. 4sol. spider. [207] (perh. related to vaogenka?)

vaoresagon [‘vaɔ̯ɾesagon]v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to prefer, to favor →gen/dat. ( < va- + u- + *resagon)

Valo luo vaoresan. I prefer one which is a mans.

vaoreznon [vaɔ̯’ɾeznon]n. 3ter. favor ( < vaoresagon + -non.)

Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.

vasīr [‘vasiːr]adv. still, as yet, so far ( < va + sīr.)

Se vasīr Drogon ūndetoks daor? And as yet Drogon hasnt been sighted?[204]

vasrie [‘vasri͡e], vajie [‘vaji͡e] -ior

adj. III thin

vēdros [‘veːdros]n. 3sol. anger

Vēdroso, vīlīpti. In anger, we fought.

vējes [‘veːjes]n. 4sol. fate, doom (including The Doom of Valyria)[208]Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.

in the inst. vējose! intj. “By fate!”[209]

vējōe [veː’joːɳe] -or

adj. III. southern ( < vēzor + -ōe.)[83]

velkrys [‘velkrys]

2sol. stag, male deer.[26]

verdagon [‘veɾdagon]perfect: vēttanv. C-fin. to arrange; to make (a decision).

Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. If leadership is about anything, its about making hard choices.

verdligon [‘veɾdligon]perfect: verdlitanv. V-fin. to remake, recreate ( < verdagon + -ligon.)

Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

Vesteros [‘vesteros]n. 3sol. Westeros

Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros

vestragon [‘vestragon]perfect: vestretanv. C-fin. to saySkoros morghot vestri? What do we say to death?[210]

with impersonal subject it seems →dat. to[211]

vestriarzir [ves’tri͡aɾzir]n. 5aq[212] story (substantivized aorist passive participle of vestragon, lit. that which is (ever/habituatlly/generally) told.)

Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. Stories can make us fly.[188]

vestretir [‘vestretir]

n. 5aq. proclamation, statement[213] (substantivized perfect participle of vestragon, lit. that which has been said.)

vēttir [‘veːttir]n. 5aq. a law (referring to a specific one), regulation[214] (substantivized perfect participle of verdagon, lit. what has been arranged.)col. vēttrir the law in general.

Vēttrir vēttrir issa. The law is the law.[215]

vēzor [‘veːzor] vēj-

n. 3aq. south ( < vēzos.)[83]

vēzos [‘veːzos]n. 3sol. sun

Vēzos qēlossās uho. My sun and stars.[59]

vēzenka [veː’zeŋka]adj. I solar ( < vēzos + -enka.)

vēzenkon qogror. solar class.[67]

vīlībagon [viː’liːbagon]v. C-fin. to fight

Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.

vīlībāzma [viːliː’baːzma]n. 1lun. war, battle ( < vīlībagon + -āzma.); instr. vīlībāzmosa by combat (concerning a trial)

Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. The war rages on, but soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.

vokemagon [voke’magon]v. C-fin. (irreg.) to purify (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in voktys, + -emagon.)

Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

voktys [‘voktys]n. 2sol. priest, priestess. (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in vokemagon, + -tys.)

Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. The High Priest gave you a mission.

vōljes [‘voːʎes]

n. 4sol. raven

vollie [‘volli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III ninth.

vōre [‘voːɾe] -ior

num. adj. II nine.

vōrēpsa [voː’ɾeːpsa] indec.

num. ninety.

vōrīblie [voː’ɾiːbli͡e] -ior

num. adj. III ninetieth.

vūjigon [‘vuːjigon]v. V-fin. to kissPerzo Vūjita Kissed by FireVala abre vūjitas. Vale abra vūjitas. The man kissed the woman. The woman kissed the man.

[59]

vys [vys] vyh-n. 3sol? world

Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

Y

ybon [‘ybon]

n. 3ter. knee

ȳdragon [‘yːdragon]v. V-fin. to speak; →inst. a languageQuptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? Do you speak the Common tongue?

Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? Do you speak Valyrian?[59]

ȳgha [‘yːɣa]adj. I safe

Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza He holds us safe

yknagon [‘yknagon]

v. V-fin. to smell

yn [yn]conj. but.qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn rie dōre ōdrikātās. slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.

yne, ynot etc., see nyke.

ȳrda [‘yːrda] -ys, -on, -or

adj. I narrow

ȳrgos [‘yːrgos]

n. 3sol. neck

Yunkai [‘juŋkai̯] gen. Yunkaihon. 6for.ter Yunkai ( < Ghiscari)

Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.

Z

zālagon [‘zaːlagon]perfect: zaltan?v. C-fin. to burn. va daorunta zālagon to burn away, to burn to nothing

Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta elli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

zaldrīzes [zal’driːzes]n. 4sol. dragon. ( < zālagon + rīza.)Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. A dragon is not a slave.

zaldrīzo ānogar Blood of the dragon[216]

zentys [‘zentys]n.2sol. guest

Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. These men are our guests.

ziksoso [zi’ksoso]adv. in his way, as he wishes (unknown; cf. yhoso & aōhoso for which corresponding form should be *zȳhoso.)

Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.

zīragon [‘ziːɾagon]perfect: zīrtan

v. C-fin. to freeze; zīrtys perzys[147] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian

ziry [‘ziɾy]

pron. he, she, (it) (solar & lunar).

zirȳla [zi’ɾyːla]

refl. 1lun. himself, herself, itself

zōbrie [‘zoːbri͡e], -ioradj. III dark; black

Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar Dark Wings, Dark Words

zokla [‘zokla]

n. 1lun. wolf

zoklītsos [zo’kliːtsos]

n. 3sol. little wolf ( < zokla + -ītsos.)

zūgagon [‘zuːgagon]v. C-fin. to fear apparently assigns a dative, or possibly a locative

Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

zūger [‘zuːger]n. perh. 4sol. or 6col. fear[58]

Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.

zȳha [‘zyːha] -ys, -on, -or

poss. adj. I his, her, its.

zȳhon [‘zyːhon]poss.pron. 3ter. his, hers, (its).Zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. His is the song of ice and fire.Abbreviations

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